Learning Disability

A learning disability (LD) is an invisible disability.  It is thought to be neurologically based and continues throughout one’s lifespan.  It is primarily diagnosed in elementary or middle grades, but may not be diagnosed until high school or college.  Some learning disabilities commonly seen among college students include a Reading Disorder, Mathematics Disorder, Disorder of Written Expression, and Learning Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified.

The recommendations outlined below are meant to serve as guidelines for professionals who diagnose UGA students with a Learning Disability. Persons qualified to diagnose LD may include psychologists and neuropsychologists.

  1. Prepare documentation on professional letterhead, with the dates of assessment, signatures, and license numbers or credentials of the diagnosing professional.
  2. Include a diagnosis of a Learning Disability as outlined in the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).
  3. Provide relevant testing information, including diagnostic tests used, test scores obtained, and the interpretation of these scores.
  4. Present evidence of current impairment and rationale that supports the need for specific academic accommodations.
  5. Rule out potential factors related to academic difficulty such as cultural/language barriers, emotional issues, ADHD, or other disabilities.

The DRC also considers records of past accommodations and services in high school or other colleges when evaluating requests for accommodations. Such records may include an Individual Educational Plan (IEP), Summary of Performance (SOP), or 504 Plan from high school.  The DRC may need to request an updated evaluation if the initial documentation is inadequate to determine the extent of the disability or to support the need for requested accommodations. The cost of obtaining further documentation is the responsibility of the student.  A DRC coordinator is available to consult with the student or professional regarding these documentation guidelines.

 

Mental Health Professionals – Detailed Learning Disability Guidelines

The following measures are examples of tests that can be used to measure skills of intelligence, achievement, cognitive processing, and social emotional areas. Evaluators may use one or more test in the areas of achievement, processing, and social emotional or select others with which they are familiar as long as the identified areas are appropriately assessed.

INTELLIGENCE MEASURES

  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV(WAIS IV)
  • Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT)
  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ IV), General Intellectual Ability Differential Ability Tests 5 (DAT)
  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5 (SB 5)
  • Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS)

ACHIEVEMENT MEASURES

Reading

Decoding

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV), Basic Reading Skills Cluster, Phoneme/Grapheme Knowledge
  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test III (WIAT III), Word Reading , Pseudoword Decoding
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement 3 (KTEA-3), Decoding
  • Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised-Normative Update (WRMT-R/NU), Word Attack,

Readiness (Visual and Auditory). Word Identification

  • Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised-Normative Update (PIAT-R/NU), Reading Recognition
  • Gray Oral Reading Test-5 (GORT-5), Accuracy
  • Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT-4), Reading

Rate

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV), Academic Fluency Cluster (Reading Fluency)
  • Nelson Denny Reading Test (NDRT), Reading Rate
  • Gray Oral Reading Test-5 (GORT-5), Rate, Fluency
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement 3 (KTEA-3), Silent Reading Fluency, Reading Vocabulary

Comprehension

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV), Passage Comprehension
  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II), Comprehension
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-3 (KTEA-3), Comprehension
  • Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised-Normative Update (WRMT-R/NU), Comprehension
    • Word
    • Passage Comprehension
  • Nelson Denny Reading Test (NDRT), Comprehension
  • Gray Oral Reading Test-4 (GORT-4), Comprehension, Oral Reading Index
  • Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised-Normative Update (PIAT-R/NU), Comprehension
  • Wide Range Achievement Test-4 (WRAT-4), Sentence Comprehension

Written Expression

Spelling

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV), Basic Writing Skills Cluster
  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II), Spelling
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-3 (KTEA-3), Spelling
  • Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised-Normative Update (PIAT-R/NU), Spelling
  • Wide Range Achievement Test-4 (WRAT-4), Spelling

Written Expression

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV), Written Expression Cluster (Phoneme/Grapheme Knowledge Cluster)
  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II), Written Expression
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-3 (KTEA-3), Written Expression
  • Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised Normative Update (PIAT-R/NU), Written Expression
  • Descriptive Tests of Language Skills (DTLS)
  • Oral and Written Language Scales, second edition (OWLS II)

Mathematics

Calculation

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV), Math Calculation Skills Cluster
  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II), Numerical Operations
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-3 (KTEA-3), Computation
  • Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised-Normative Update (PIAT-R/NU), Mathematics
  • Wide Range Achievement Test-4 (WRAT-4), Arithmetic
  • Key Math-3, Operations
  • Descriptive Tests of Mathematics Skills (DTMS), Algebra, Elementary and Intermediate Levels

Application

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV), Math Problem Solving Cluster
  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II), Math Concepts & Application
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-3 (KTEA-3), Math Application
  • Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised-Normative Update (PIAT-R/NU), Mathematics
  • Key Math-3, Foundations of Problem Solving & Applied Problem Solving

COGNITIVE PROCESSING MEASURES

Attention

  • Visual Search and Attention (VSAT)
  • Continuous Performance Tests, 3rd edition, (inattention, impulsivity, sustained attention, vigilance)
  • Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)
  • Trail Making Test, Part A
  • IVA + Plus: Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (CPT)
  • Wisconsin Card Sorting Task: Computer Version 4 (WCST:CV4)

Oral Language Measures

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Oral Language (WJ IV)
  • Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL)
  • Test of Adolescent and Adult Language-4 (TOAL-4)
  • Oral and Written Language Scales, second edition (OWLS II)
  • Test of Language Competence-Expanded (TLC-E)
  • Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 3rd edition (WIAT III), Oral Language Composite
  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (CELF-4)
  • Test of Adolescent and Adult Word Finding (TAWF)
  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test IV (PPVT IV)
  • Expressive Vocabulary Test, second edition (EVT-2)
  • Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-3 (KTEA-3), Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression

Phonologic/Orthographic Processing

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ IV)
    • Auditory Processing Cluster (Cognitive)
    • Phonological Processing
  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, second edition (CTOPP-2)
  • Phonological Awareness Composite
  • Phonological Memory Composite
  • Alternate Phonological Awareness Composite
  • Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test-III (LAC-3)
  • Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination (GFW)
  • Slingerland Screening Tests
  • Rosner Test of Auditory Analysis Skills (TAAS)

Fluency/Automaticity

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ IV)
    • Cognitive Efficiency Cluster--Standard/Extended (Cognitive)
    • Processing Speed Cluster
  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, second edition (CTOPP-2)
  • Rapid Naming Composite
  • Alternate Rapid Naming Composite
  • Test of Word Reading Efficiency, second edition (TOWRE-2)
  • Word Retrieval & Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN)
  • Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (CELF-4)
  • Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT)

Memory/Learning

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ IV)
    • Short Term Working Memory Cluster
    • Long Term Retrieval Cluster
  • Wechsler Memory Scale IV (WMS-IV)
  • California Verbal Learning Test, second edition II (CVLT-II)
  • Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)
  • Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Recall Portion
  • Test of Visual Perceptual Skills-3 (TVPS-3)
  • Continuous Visual Memory Test (CVMT)

Executive Functions

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ IV)
    • Fluid Reasoning Cluster (Cognitive)
  • Wisconsin Cart Sorting Task: Computer Version 4 (WCST:CV4)
  • Trail Making Test, Part B
  • Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test
  • Porteus Mazes
  • Ravens Progressive Matrices
  • Verbal Fluency Test
  • Booklet Category Test, 2nd edition
  • Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT)
  • Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS)

Visual-Perceptual/Visual-Spatial

  • Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III), Visual Processing
  • Detroit Test of Learning Aptitude-4
    • Design Sequences
    • Design Reproduction
  • Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills, 3rd edition (TVPS-3)
  • Hooper Visual Organization Test (VOT)
  • Slingerland Screening Tests
  • Benton Judgment of Line Orientation
  • Benton Face Recognition Test

Visual-Motor and Motor Tests

  • Test of Visual-Motor Skills-Upper Level (TVMS-UL)
  • Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Copy
  • Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, 6thedition
  • Finger Tapping
  • Grooved Pegboard
  • Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test II

SOCIAL EMOTIONAL MEASURES

  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Checklists
  • Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)
  • Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
  • Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)
  • Clinical Interview
  • College Adjustment Scales (CAS)
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), Structured Clinical Interview
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)
  • Projective Techniques
  • Pride Questionnaire
  • State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)
     

Last revised on 3 August 2016

Contact the DRC

***We Are Back in Clark Howell Hall***

Clark Howell Hall
825 South Lumpkin Street

VOICE: (706) 542-8719
FAX: (706) 542-7719
TTY: (706) 542-8778

drc@uga.edu

Our offices are available Monday-Friday 8:00 am to 5:00 pm.